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Description: TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 128: Effects of TOD on Housing, Parking, and Travel explores the demographics of transit-oriented development (TOD) residents and employers, and their motives for locating in TODs. The report also examines the travel characteristics of residence before and after moving to TOD and ways to increase transit ridership among these residents. In addition, the report reviews the potential effect of land-use and design features on travel patterns, transit ridership, and the decision to locate in a TOD.
Citation: Arrington, G.B. "TCRP Report 128: Effects of TOD on Housing, Parking, and Travel."Transportation Research Board - Transit Cooperative Research Program, 2008
Description: TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 102: Transit-Oriented Development in the United States--Experiences, Challenges, and Prospects examines the state of the practice and the benefits of transit-oriented development and joint development throughout the United States. The report focuses on TOD and joint development and practice; the level of collaboration between various partners (e.g., the development community, financial partners, planning and land-use agencies, and government entities); the impacts of TOD and joint development on land values; the potential benefits of TOD; and successful design principles and characteristics.
Citation: Cerver, Robert. "TCRP Report 102: Transit-Oriented Development in the United States: Experiences, Challenges, and Prospects" Transportation Research Board - Transit Cooperative Research Program, 2004
Description: This article fills a gap in literature discussing the planning and implementation stages of transit-oriented development. The case study of the San Diego Trolley, dating t1981, is used to show how regional TOD implementation is aligned with the incremental model of policy-making.
Citation: Boarnet, Marlon. "Transit-Oriented Development in San Diego County. " Journal of the American Planning Association, 1999, Volume 65 (1).
Description: Perth has seen strong investment in public transport infrastructure compared with its past approach of a city designed for mobility by car. Designing a transport system to compete with the car in a low-density city has raised significant challenges. The planning and routing of Perth's newest passenger railway has been strongly grounded in land use planning with active pursuit of opportunities for transit-oriented development (TOD). This has resulted in different models of integration from TODs designed around walk-on patronage, to TODs designed to calm hostile car-based environments, to transit-transfer stations relying on state transit agency coordination between transport modes to maximize the attractiveness of the public transport travel. This paper examines the opportunities and constraints presented by each model.
Citation: Curtis, Carey. "Evolution of the Transit-oriented Development Model for Low-density Cities: A Case Study of Perth's New Railway Corridor." Planning, Practice and Research, 2008, Volume 23 (3).
Description: Cities and regions throughout the U.S. are promoting transit-oriented development (TOD) near rail stations to increase both transit use and the number and range of housing opportunities. This paper reports the results of a survey of households who moved to TODs within the last 5 years, finding a wide range of motivations. Only about one-third of respondents reported access to transit as one of the top three reasons for choosing to live in a TOD. They were equally or more likely to cite lower housing cost or the quality of the neighborhood. Those who reported that their choice of residence location was motivated in part by access to transit were more likely to use transit than those who did not.
Citation: Lund, Hollie. "Reasons for Living in a Transit-Oriented Development, and Associated Transit Use." Journal of the American Planning Association, 2006, Volume 72 (3).
Description: Transit-oriented development is shown to produce an appreciable ridership bonus in California. This is partly due to residential self-selection that is, a lifestyle preference for transit- oriented living as well as factors like employer-based policies that reduce free parking and automobile subsidies. Half-mile catchments of station areas appear to be indifference zones in the sense that residents generally ride transit regardless of local urban design attributes. Out-of-neighborhood attributes, like job accessibility and street connectivity at the destination, on the other hand, have a significant bearing on transit usage among station-area residents. The presence of self- selection, shown using nested logic modeling, underscores the importance of removing barriers to residential mobility is that households are able to sort themselves, via the marketplace, to locations well served by transit. Market-responsive zoning, flexible residential parking policies, location efficient mortgages, and adaptive reuse of parking lots are also promising tools for expanding the supply of transit-based housing.
Citation: Cerver, Robert. "Transit-Oriented Development's Ridership Bonus: A Product of Self-Selection and Public Policies." Environment and Planning A, 2007, Volume 39 (9).
Description: This study helps to confirm the importance of a quality built environment upon travel behavior and vehicle ownership through an analysis of the three BART stations listed above. This article presents a transit-adjacent development - TOD spectrum that may help planners and policy makers better understand what is and what is not a TOD
Citation: Renne, John L."From Transit-Adjacent to Transit-Oriented Development." Local Environment, 2009, Volume 14 (1).